Texas

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State of Texas

Flag of TexasState seal of Texas
FlagSeal
Nickname(s):

The Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship
State song(s): “Texas, Our Texas
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Official languageNo official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
Spoken languagesPredominantly English;
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority[1]
DemonymTexan
Texian (archaic)
Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)
CapitalAustin
Largest cityHouston
Largest metroDallas–Fort Worth Metroplex
AreaRanked 2nd
 • Total268,581[2] sq mi
(696,241 km2)
 • Width773[3] miles (1,244 km)
 • Length790 miles (1,270 km)
 • % water2.5
 • Latitude25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 • Longitude93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
PopulationRanked 2nd
 • Total28,701,845 (2018 est.)[4]
 • Density108/sq mi  (40.6/km2)
Ranked 26th
 • Median household income$59,206[5] (24th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointGuadalupe Peak[6][7][8]
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
 • Mean1,700 ft  (520 m)
 • Lowest pointGulf of Mexico[7]
Sea level
Before statehoodRepublic of Texas
Admitted to the UnionDecember 29, 1845 (28th)
GovernorGreg Abbott (R)
Lieutenant GovernorDan Patrick (R)
LegislatureTexas Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsJohn Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
U.S. House delegation23 Republicans
13 Democrats(list)
Time zones
 • Majority of stateCentralUTC−6/−5
 • El PasoHudspeth, and northwestern Culberson countiesMountainUTC−7/−6
ISO 3166US-TX
AbbreviationsTXTex.
Websitetexas.gov
showTexas state symbols

Texas (/ˈtɛksəs/locally /ˈtɛksɪz/;[9] SpanishTexas or Tejas Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtexas] (About this soundlisten)) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of ChihuahuaCoahuilaNuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed “The Lone Star State” to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state’s struggle for independence from Mexico. The “Lone Star” can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texan state seal.[10] The origin of Texas’s name is from the word taysha, which means “friends” in the Caddo language.[11]

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and Southwestern regions.[12] Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas’s land area is desert.[13] Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairiesgrasslandsforests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term “six flags over Texas[note 1] refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845,[14] Texas joined the union as the 28th state. The state’s annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.[15] Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economyand high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54.[16] With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicalsenergycomputers and electronicsaerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since 2002, and has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world.

Etymology

The name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ (/t’ajʃaʔ/) “friend”, was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas,[17] by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, specifically the Hasinai Confederacy,[18] the final -s representing the Spanish plural.[19] The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston CountyEast Texas.[20]

During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas “New Kingdom of the Philippines”, or as provincia de los Tejas“province of the Tejas“,[21] later also provincia de Texas (or de Tejas), “province of Texas”.[22][23] It was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, and declared a republic in 1836. The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. State of Texas.[24]

The English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, and based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja “rooftile”, the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements.[25] A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett.[25]

Geography

Texas is the second-largest U.S. state, after Alaska, with an area of 268,820 square miles (696,200 km2). Though 10% larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile and Zambia.

Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers. The Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of ChihuahuaCoahuilaNuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. The Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30′ N and a western border with New Mexico at 103° WEl Paso lies on the state’s western tip at 32° Nand the Rio Grande.[26]

With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions and 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, topography, geology, rainfall, and plant and animal communities.[27] One classification system divides Texas, in order from southeast to west, into the following: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and Basin and Range Province.

The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state. Vegetation in this region consists of thick piney woods. The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land and is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest.

The Great Plains region in central Texas spans through the state’s panhandle and Llano Estacado to the state’s hill country near Austin. This region is dominated by prairie and steppe. “Far West Texas” or the “Trans-Pecos” region is the state’s Basin and Range Province. The most varied of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands.

Texas has 3,700 named streams and 15 major rivers,[28][29] with the Rio Grande as the largest. Other major rivers include the Pecos, the BrazosColorado, and Red River. While Texas has few natural lakes, Texans have built over 100 artificial reservoirs.[30]

The size and unique history of Texas make its regional affiliation debatable; it can be fairly considered a Southern or a Southwestern state, or both. The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States. Notable extremes range from East Texaswhich is often considered an extension of the Deep South, to Far West Texas which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest.[31]

Geology

Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. The continental crust forms a stable Mesoproterozoic craton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old.

These Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llanouplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso. Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks. The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time.

This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian subperiod to form Pangea. This is the buried crest of the Appalachian MountainsOuachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. This orogeniccrest is today buried beneath the Dallas–Waco—Austin–San Antonio trend.

The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic period began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Pangea began to break up in the Triassic, but seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid and late Jurassic. The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico passive margin began to form. Today 9 to 12 miles (14 to 19 km) of sediments are buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are here. At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age. These salt deposits formed salt dome diapirs, and are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast.[32]

East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments which contain important deposits of Eocene lignite. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil. Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer.[33] Located far from an active plate tectonic boundary, Texas has no volcanoes and few earthquakes.[34]

Wildlife

A wide range of animals and insects live in Texas. It is the home to 65 species of mammals, 213 species of reptiles and amphibians, and the greatest diversity of bird life in the United States—590 native species in all.[35] At least 12 species have been introduced and now reproduce freely in Texas.[36]

Texas plays host to several species of wasps. Texas is one of the regions that has the highest abundance of Polistes exclamans.[37] Additionally, Texas has provided an important ground for the study of Polistes annularis.

During the spring Texas wildflowers such as the state flower, the bluebonnet, line highways throughout Texas. During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnson, worked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers.

Climate

Köppen climate types in Texas

The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state highly variable weather. The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters. Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages 8.7 inches (220 mm) of annual rainfall,[38] while parts of southeast Texas average as much as 64 inches (1,600 mm) per year.[39] Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate 37 inches (940 mm) per year.

Snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas. Snow falls south of San Antonio or on the coast in rare circumstances only. Of note is the 2004 Christmas Eve snowstorm, when 6 inches (150 mm) of snow fell as far south as Kingsville, where the average high temperature in December is 65 °F.[40]

Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26 °C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around 100 °F (38 °C) in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the 90 °F (32 °C) range.

Night-time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14 °C) in the West Texas mountains[41] to 80 °F (27 °C) in Galveston.[42]

The table below consists of averages for August (generally the warmest month) and January (generally the coldest) in selected cities in various regions of the state. El Paso and Amarillo are exceptions with July and December respectively being the warmest and coldest months respectively, but with August and January only being narrowly different.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Texas[43]
LocationAugust (°F)August (°C)January (°F)January (°C)
Houston94/7534/2463/5417/12
San Antonio96/7435/2363/4017/5
Dallas96/7736/2557/3716/3
Austin97/7436/2361/4516/5
El Paso92/6733/2157/3214/0
Laredo100/7737/2567/4619/7
Amarillo89/6432/1850/2310/–4
Brownsville94/7634/2470/5121/11

Storms

Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state. Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas. The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of 139 a year. These strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle.[44] Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June.[45]

Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas. A hurricane in 1875 killed about 400 people in Indianola, followed by another hurricane in 1886 that destroyed the town. These events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city. The 1900 Galveston hurricane subsequently devastated that city, killing about 8,000 people or possibly as many as 12,000. This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history.[46] In 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall in Rockport as a Category 4 Hurricane, causing significant damage there. The storm stalled over land for a very long time, allowing it to drop unprecedented amounts of rain over the Greater Houston area and surrounding counties. The result was widespread and catastrophic flooding that inundated hundreds of thousands of homes. Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $198.6 billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina.[47]

Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the 1915 Galveston hurricaneHurricane Audrey in 1957 which killed over 600 people, Hurricane Carla in 1961, Hurricane Beulah in 1967, Hurricane Alicia in 1983, Hurricane Rita in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Tropical storms have also caused their share of damage: Allison in 1989 and again during 2001, and Claudette in 1979 among them.

Cities, towns, and metropolitan areas

Largest city in Texas by year[229]
Year(s)City
1850–1870San Antonio[230]
1870–1890Galveston[231]
1890–1900Dallas[229]
1900–1930San Antonio[230]
1930–presentHouston[232]

The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.[233] These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As of 2010, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–ArlingtonHouston–Sugar Land–BaytownSan Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively.

Three interstate highwaysI-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) contains most of the state’s largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas’s total population.[234] Houston and Dallas have been recognized as beta world cities.[235] These cities are spread out amongst the state. Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).[236]

In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.[237] The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias.[238] Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias.[237]

Languages

The most common accent or dialect spoken by natives throughout Texas is sometimes referred to as Texan English, which itself is a sub-variety of a broader category of American English known as Southern American English.[240][241] Creole language is spoken in East Texas.[242] In some areas of the state—particularly in the large cities – Western American English and General American English, have been on the increase. Chicano English—due to a growing Hispanic population—is widespread in South Texas, while African-American English is especially notable in historically minority areas of urban Texas.

Top 10 Non-English languages spoken in Texas
LanguagePercentage of population
(as of 2010)[243]
Spanish29.21%
Vietnamese0.75%
Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese)0.56%
German0.33%
Tagalog0.29%
French0.25%
Korean and Urdu (tied)0.24%
Hindi0.23%
Arabic0.21%
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (IboKru, and Yoruba)0.15%

As of 2010, 65.8% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 29.2% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75 percent (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over the age of five.[243]

Other languages spoken include German (including Texas German) by 0.33% (73,137,) Tagalog with 0.29% (73,137) speakers, and French (including Cajun French) was spoken by 0.25% (55,773) of Texans.[243] Reportedly, Cherokee is the most widely spoken Native American language in Texas.[244]

In total, 34.2% (7,660,406) of Texas’s population aged five and older spoke a language at home other than English.[243]